Carter tested positive for the banned stimulant methylhexaneamine in fresh analysis of his urine sample given at the 2008 Beijing Games. The positive test led to the rest of the Jamaican 4x100-meter relay team, including Bolt, losing their gold medals.
A CAS verdict will likely take several months. The court says a three-member judging panel must be appointed before a hearing date can be set.
CAS says the panel will then "deliberate and at a later date, it will issue a decision."
Carter participated in Jamaica's heat and the final as they broke the world record en route to the top step of the podium in China. Michael Frater and Asafa Powell were also members of the team.
A CAS statement on Friday read: "The Jamaican sprinter Nesta Carter has filed an appeal at the Court of Arbitration for Sport [CAS] against the International Olympic Committee [IOC] regarding the decision issued by the IOC Disciplinary panel on 25 January 2017 in which he was found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.
"A consequence of such finding was the disqualification of Nesta Carter and the other members of the Jamaican team from the men's 4x100m relay at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in which they had achieved the gold medal.
"Nesta Carter seeks to set aside the challenged decision in order for the Jamaican team to be reinstated as gold medallists.
"A CAS arbitration procedure is in progress. First, the parties will exchange written submissions and a panel of three arbitrators will be constituted. The panel will then issue directions with respect to the holding of a hearing.
"Following the hearing, the panel will deliberate and at a later date, it will issue a decision in the form of an arbitral award."
FEATURED IMAGE CAPTION: In this Friday, Aug. 22, 2008 file photo, Jamaica's gold medal winning relay team, from left, Usain Bolt, Michael Frater, Asafa Powell and Nesta Carter celebrate after the men's 4x100m relay final during the athletics competitions in the National Stadium at the Beijing 2008 Olympics.